the United States is facing a substantial energy challenge of increasing domestic energy security while addressing ways to mitigate global climate change california has become one of the largest economies in the world to require significant reductions of greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide or co2 from the electrical generation sector on another front us energy producers are implementing techniques to answer the need to increase domestic energy by enhancing the recovery of oil from existing mature oil fields one such technique that addresses both climate and energy challenges combines carbon capture at power plants and enhanced oil recovery with the permanent sequestration or storage of co2 individually these technologies have been successfully demonstrated around the world and the US Environmental Protection Agency Department of Energy and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have recognized the long-term potential for permanent and safe storage of carbon dioxide underground in the geological formations in California alone there is enough space in the oil fields to safely store all the carbon dioxide the state will emit over the next several hundred years this first-of-a-kind facility would enable the power sector to provide reliable power while meeting their significant emissions reductions targets and at the same time enable California to produce more domestic oil effectively bridging the way to a new energy future traditional fossil fuel power plants emit greenhouse gases during the production of electricity a newly proposed power plant the hydrogen energy California or heka facility reduces the amount of carbon dioxide emitted during electricity generation by ninety percent compared to conventional coal-fired power plants the heka project will capture and permanently store more than 2 million tons of co2 every year the equivalent of taking nearly a half million cars off the road and will provide reliable baseload low-carbon power to over 150,000 homes throughout the state of California the heka plant will predominantly use petroleum coke a byproduct of the oil refining process as its fuel or feed stock instead of conventionally burning the fuel and releasing emissions into the atmosphere the fossil fuels are gasified in a patented process then the gas is separated into its primary components of hydrogen and carbon dioxide the hydrogen is used for clean power generation and approximately ninety percent of the carbon dioxide is captured the captured co2 is sent to a local oil field for permanent sequestration the co2 captured a tikka is transported by pipeline to Occidental’s elk hills field where it will be sequestered through an enhanced oil recovery process pipelines are recognized as the safest and most efficient method to transport liquids and gases in the u.s. co2 pipelines have a safe operation history spanning decades with more than 3,000 miles in active service today the pipeline will be buried and routed in a way to minimize environmental impacts and disturbances to populated and ecologically sensitive areas special construction techniques will be used to enable the pipeline to safely pass under an aqueduct to ensure the integrity of the waterway and the pipeline the co2 supply pipeline from heka is strictly regulated and is required to have extensive safety features and regular reporting of its operational and maintenance activities including anti-corrosion systems and regular inspections emergency shutdown valves are positioned at regular intervals along the pipeline and can be closed to ensure the containment of the co2 in the event of an emergency the pipeline ascends over 1,100 feet on its short journey to elk hills and primarily traverses agricultural and open range land the co2 arrives safely at the oxy facility where it will be injected deep underground for enhanced oil recovery with permanent sequestration of the co2 during low carbon power production at the heka plant carbon dioxide or co2 is captured compressed to a near liquid state and transported be a pipeline to the oxy l kills operation for enhanced oil recovery or cor and sequestration extensive geological analysis has identified oxys l kills field as one of the premier geologic traps in north america for enhanced oil recovery with permanent co2 storage due to its unique shape and secure geology millions of years ago oil began migrating to the elk hills reservoir where the tiny pore spaces within the dome like structure of the sandstone formation have retained the oil in place the oil and gases have been contained underground by a thick impermeable layer of shale or caprock hundreds of feet thick that forms a barrier naturally preventing fluids and gases from rising to the surface enhanced oil recovery with permanent co2 sequestration or storage is a process where co2 is injected into deep reservoirs to improve oil production and is a technique already used in more than 100 US oil field operations co2 will be transported from he can head to the Occidental l kills operation where enhanced oil recovery with permanent co2 storage will be used to extend the life of oxys oilfield the co2 is injected in a liquid like state to a depth greater than one mile underground the equivalent of four Empire State Building stacked one on top of the other the co2 travels down the well bore to a precise and predetermined location within the rock formation that provides the greatest enhanced oil recovery and permanent co2 storage benefit as the co2 mixes with the oil in the formation the oil swells reducing its viscosity allowing the oil to flow more easily through the interconnected four spaces towards the production well which can result in ten to thirty percent more oil production during this process the co2 becomes trapped in the rock and is permanently stored in the pore spaces in the same way oil was trapped in the formation millions of years ago with the caprock serving as a physical barrier for the containment of the co2 other trapping mechanisms include the dissolution of co2 in formation fluids and mineralization of the co2 within the rock for spaces as fluids and gases are produced from the well they flow through a series of vessels that separate them at roxys cor plant the oil is separated and stored in tanks prior to being delivered to the American market a portion of the injected co2 may be produced with the oil this co2 remains contained within the process system at all times and is immediately separated and combined with co2 arriving from heka for rejection into the formation this is known as a closed-loop process and ensures the injected co2 is ultimately retained within the reservoir several methods will be employed to monitor measure and verify the containment of the co2 in the formation 24 hours a day seven days a week sophisticated detection techniques and equipment are used in the reservoir and on the surface to ensure the accurate and safe storage of the co2 the protection of underground sources of drinking water and the public in addition the containment of co2 in the target formation is further verified by the monitoring of co2 levels in a gas production reservoir above the injections own successful carbon capture and enhanced oil recovery with permanent co2 storage in a project of this magnitude requires extensive skills resources and experience by combining the technical expertise and proven experiences of oxy and hydrogen energy this project is creating a bridge to the new energy future that is preserving environmental quality while bringing more jobs and economic activity to the state of California capturing emissions from electrical generation in a closed loop enhanced oil recovery with permanent co2 storage process will provide California with reliable low-carbon power and increase domestic oil production
The Hydrogen Energy California power plant will generate clean, low-carbon electricity for California, while capturing and sequestering 90% of its carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This movie demonstrates the “closed loop” process through which the captured CO2 would be permanently and safely stored in underground rock formations deep below the Elk Hills in Kern County, in a way that enables additional domestic oil production.

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